With regard to the temperature, the human body is very sensitive. Hypothermia occurs already in the case of small fluctuations of the heating body. Normally, the body’s core temperature is 37 degrees, it rises by only two degrees, we experience the phenomena of a full-blown fever, with marked failure. It drops two degrees, 35 degrees, we experience a significant cooling.
At extremely low temperatures, the justice is done quickly. A healthy Person is not dressed correctly – not running around but naked in only 10 minutes in the range of under cooling. The temperature drops to minus 40 to 45 degrees Celsius you can use a sub-cooling even after only 5 to 7 minutes. So something happened quickly. For example, if people are forced to leave your car, even though they have no protective clothing.
Under cooling, the Thinking paralyzes
The Dangerous: It is not only the muscles that suffers. The decrease in body temperature leads to important organs, including the heart and brain, are working properly. The body comes in a state of shock. The core temperature drops two degrees in the area of mild hypothermia, symptoms such as weakness, Tremors and mental confusion occur.
On further cooling, these symptoms intensify. The inner temperature drops to 21 degrees, death occurs. In the case of persons with heart damage that can be done far earlier. On the other hand, single people have survived an even deeper slowdown. A big Problem: The faint far before the occurrence of the death, you have the forces to counter the challenge are missing. You surrender to your fate. Brain death occurs when hypothermia late, the brain survives longer because of the metabolism running slows down.
Protection of organs is a priority
With the Shaking and the Shifting of the blood into the core of the body tries, the external application of a cold to counter. So it prevents the Freezing of the organism. As long as you don’t get lost or in the Wilderness of the cold is surprised, it is rare to hypothermia. But in order to protect the organs in the body core, the flow of blood to the periphery.
Frostbite happen relatively quickly. Fingers and toes are particularly susceptible to frostbite, since in these areas the blood flow is greatly reduced. The feet are protected by shoes. With effort, you sweat, and this moisture leads to increased cooling. Therefore, toes are at risk.
If you suffer a frostbite depends on the temperature and the cooling by the Wind. At minus 18 degrees and a wind chill (increased heat loss due to wind speed) of minus 28 degrees, it may already come in 30 minutes to a frostbite, the National weather service of the United States. At minus 26 degrees and a wind chill of minus 48 degrees, this happens in only five minutes.
Less well known is that a man can freeze to death if it is particularly cold. In extreme cold the air is always dry. However, at temperatures just above the freezing point of the body can be confronted with moisture and cold. In the water, the body loses 25 Times faster heat than in the air, says Michael Sawka, head of the Department of Thermal and mountain medicine at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Rain, but also sweat, lead to a similar, although weaker effect. In addition to the increased dissipation due to the water add to that the loses that have been soaked clothes, usually their insulation effect. So it can occur even at temperatures of five degrees plus to hypothermia and possibly even death.
Why freeze to death of people in Germany
Everyone understands that you can freeze to death, when right in the middle of Siberia of the car remains and you have to walk more. Or that such a thing can happen in the mountains, when hikers get lost in the snow storm. In the Arctic snow storm, people have lost the orientation, only to walk 50 meters from one building to the other.
But the causes in our wide degrees are usually very different. Homelessness is likely to be the main risk factor. Those who stayed in the Outdoor or only partially protected, can die during the night from hypothermia. Because the process causes no pain, Wake up in the Affected. Poor physical condition increases the risk. Add to that the homeless, the visit is not a protective device, also have no way, moist to dry clothes and Blankets.
A further risk factor is alcohol the physical restrictions imposed by the consumption of alcohol are enhanced by a slight sub-cooling of the solid. Here, it can happen that a Drunken man remains sitting on a bench, falls asleep and eventually dies, although the saving of heat is, perhaps, only a hundred meters.
What kind of clothes will help?
Right clothes can withstand the cold Arctic. The military Institute of Michael Sawka is recommended to wear three layers of Clothing– a layer, which removes moisture from the skin, an insulating layer and a protective layer, the Wind and rain. To do this, you should wear insulated boots, since feet and toes exposed to a high freezing risk. A scarf or a face mask are also recommended.
This sounds simple, but only the least. Most appropriate clothing is combined with inappropriate items. A thick coat alone helps little, if undergarments are worn, of cotton, office shoes and a normal pair of cloth trousers.
Sources: Sustaining Health and Performance in the Cold, Live Science