There are diseases such as diabetes, hypertension or asthma, which everyone has heard of. But there are things that almost no one knows. Today we will talk about five of the most rare and strange diseases.
Syndrome, auto-brewery elisandra roaming bowel
Most of us in the morning experience a hangover, but only if in the evening drank some amount of alcohol. Although initially alcohol helps to lighten the mood, morning health reminds us that the body does not accept a noisy party.
However, there are people who are experiencing intoxication and hangover, not eating a significant amount of alcohol or even without touching him. These people suffer from a rare disease called syndrome, auto-brewery syndrome or wandering of the intestine, in which pure alcohol (ethanol) is produced in the intestine after consumption of carbohydrate-rich foods.
The growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, species of yeast in the gut is the main culprit of the fermentation process in which ethanol is produced. However, the researchers note that the alcohol produced in the blood, will not be enough to ensure that people could not get behind the wheel. However, in some cases, this condition has serious consequences.
Processing ethanol is engaged in the liver. If ensuring you have a problem, you will experience a form of syndrome in which alcohol accumulates and lingers in the body longer.
Symptomshome of the wandering bowel
- Heartburn andbelching,
- chronic fatigue syndrome,
All these symptoms can seriously affect our mental and physical health. In an interview for the BBC in the UK young chelovek syndrome, auto-brewery explained their oshushenija diagnosis:
A very strange state. Drinking some beer or wine,I suddenly became the other: was stupid and vulgar. In addition, I was haunted by vomiting at night.
Fortunately, most people can manage wandering syndrome of the intestine with dietary changes: replacing fat and calories productiona high in calories and with merchistonians protein. Sometimes doctors prescribe antibiotics and antifungal drugs.
Foreign accent syndrome
Imagine you were born and raised in new York, so that is not surprising, have a typical American accent. But once on one of strenious, you get a strong blow to the head, and lose consciousness. Waking up in the emergency room, you are trying to call a nurse, but I understand your new York accent had disappeared, and instead, he had a pronounced British.
The situation described illustrates an extremely rare condition foreign accent syndrome. This is a speech disorder that results from damage to parts of the brain responsible for the coordination of speech. Such brain damage can be the result of stroke or traumatic brain injury, and linguistic violation makes a man speak as if he suddenly acquire a foreign accent.
The researchers note that in the documented cases, the emphasis changed from Japanese to Korean, British English to French, American English to British English and from Spanish into Hungarian.
However, some studies show that although most cases syndrome foreign accentuation brain injuries, sometimes this condition is psychogenic in origin. In the literature review, published in the journal Frontiers in Human Neuroscience in 2016, the researchers came to the conclusion that psychogenic foreign accent syndrome is a subtype of this condition.
Psychogenic foreign accent syndrome associated with the presence of psychiatric or psychological disorders in the absence of obvious neurological damage or organic disease that could explain the accent.
This subtype, as the authors add, is more common in women than in men, usually in the age range 25-49 years.
Fish odour syndrome
Trimethylaminuriaalso known as fish odour syndrome, is characterized by an unpleasant body odor resembling the smell of rotting fish, through sweat, breathing and urine. This occurs when the body cannot decompose organic composition of trimethylamine that produces a strong fishy smell.
Fish odour syndrome usually occurs in people with a specific mutation in the gene FMO3. This gene instructs the body to produce enzymes that break down organic compounds, such as trimethylamine. The strength of the odor may vary, but the nature of this disease usually has a serious impact on a person’s daily life and his mental health.
In the review of trimethylaminuria published in the journal Journal of Clinical and Eesthetic Dermatology in 2013, the authors write:
Patients with fish odour syndrome often suffer ridicule, suffering low self-esteem. Because the reactions of others they experience the loneliness that can adversely affect their personal life and career. Patients also recognize that the experience of shame and suffering because of their condition, and some even attempt suicide.
To solve the problem, it is recommended to eliminate or reduce the consumption of sources of trimethylamine (the substance from which is formed the connection). This applies to products containing N-oxide of trimethylamine, which was discovered in marine fish, andcholinecontained in eggs, mustard seeds, chicken liver, beef isarig soybeans. However, the researchers also noted that extremely low levels of choline (choline deficiency) can lead to such problems as liver disease, neurological diseases and a higher risk of developing cancer.
Fatal familial insomnia
It is known that insufficient or poor quality sleep can affect all aspects of life and human well-being, from physical to mental health.
While most of us can make the appropriate changes in lifestyle to normalize your sleep, some, unfortunately, are dealing with a rare disease known as fatal familial insomnia.
This condition is a genetic degenerative brain disorder in which a person begins to experience increasingly severe insomnia, which ultimately leads to significant physical and mental deterioration. Moreover, fatal familial insomnia can affect the autonomic nervous system, autopilot, which controls processes such as breathing, heart rate and body temperature.
In fatal familial insomnia, damaged proteins accumulate in the thalamus, part of brain that plays a crucial role in a person’s ability to move and feel. This leads to damage of brain cells and severe physical and mental symptoms.
Despite the fact that scientists have tried to cure the disease using antipsychotic drugs used to combat malaria, the approach was unsuccessful. Currently, treatment for fatal familial insomnia does not exist, so research is ongoing.
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One of the strangest rare diseases documented to date, is Proteus syndrome, a condition characterized by disproportionate growth of different tissue types:bone, skin, and tissues of the organs or arteries.
This is a rare and very serious disease in which the bones and skin of the patient begins the abnormally fast increase in size, leading to disruption of the natural proportions of the body. As a rule, the symptoms of Proteus syndrome are not detected during the first 6-18 months after birth.
This condition is genetic, though not hereditary. It arises due to a mutation in the gene AKT1, which occurs randomly in the uterus. A child born with Proteus syndrome, does not have any obvious signs of disease, as the growth of tissue usually begins between the ages of 6 to 18 months. Over time the condition progresses and worsens.
The syndrome can cause a number of other health problems, including mental retardation, poor vision, convulsions, and cancer and deep vein thrombosis, a condition characterized by the abnormal formation of blood clots.
Historically the most famous person with Proteus syndrome was Joseph Carey Merrick (1862-1890) from the UK that was a cruel nickname the elephant Man. At the time rare diseases such as this often makes a person exhibit in the freak show. Merrick reported that the way other people (including doctors) treated him, made him feel like an animal at the cattle market.
Fortunately, the times and the mentality has changed, and we now understand that any congenital sostoianiia must determine the identity of the person. Currently, the medical community and knowledgeable people recognize that the welfare of each person should be a priority. We hope that such principles will eventually allow medical researchers to develop better methods for treating these and other rare diseases.